Definitions of hazard properties

Hazard properties that are assessed in ClassifyMyWaste

The assessment of the hazard properties that are mentioned in this section [HP 4(irritant), HP 5 (STOT/Aspiration Toxicity), HP 6 (acute toxicity), HP 7(carcinogenic), HP 8 (corrosive), HP 9 (infectious), HP 10 (toxic for reproduction), HP 11 (mutagenic), HP 13 (sensitizing), HP 14 (eco-toxic)] can be performed in ClassifyMyWaste assuming worst case scenario and using the elemental content of a waste.

HP 4. Irritant – skin irritation and eye damage

waste which on application can cause skin irritation or damage to the eye

Hazard categories and hazard statement codes to address

H314, H315, H318, H319

Criteria

When a waste contains one or more substances in concentrations above the cut-off value, that are classified by one of the following hazard class and category codes and hazard statement codes and one or more of the following concentration limits is exceeded or equalled, the waste shall be classified as hazardous by HP 4.

The cut-off value for Skin corr. 1A (H314), Skin irrit. 2 (H315), Eye dam. 1 (H318) and Eye irrit. 2 (H319) is 1 % for any of these categories.

If the sum of the concentrations of all substances classified as Skin corr. 1A (H314) exceeds or equals 1 %, the waste shall be classified as hazardous according to HP 4.

If the sum of the concentrations of all substances classified as H318 exceeds or equals 10 %, the waste shall be classified as hazardous according to HP 4.

If the sum of the concentrations of all substances classified H315 and H319 exceeds or equals 20 %, the waste shall be classified as hazardous according to HP 4.

Note that wastes containing substances classified as H314 (Skin corr.1A, 1B or 1C) in amounts greater than or equal to 5% will be classified as hazardous by HP 8. HP 4 will not apply if the waste is classified hazardous by HP 8.

All relevant ingredients or substances shall be assessed. Relevant ingredients are those that are present at concentrations of 1% or above (cut-off limit). However, if there is a presumption that an ingredient present at a concentration below 1% can also lead to corrosion or irritation, such ingredient shall also be taken into account.

Note that Commission Regulation (EU) No 1357/2014 that replaces Annex III to Directive 2008/98/EC (WFD), does not specify pH as a criterion for the assessment of irritant or corrosive (HP 8) hazard properties.

HP 5: Specific Target Organ Toxicity (STOT) / Aspiration Toxicity

waste which can cause specific target organ toxicity either from a single or repeated exposure, or which cause severe acute toxic effects following aspiration

Table HP 5. Hazard Class and Category Code(s) and Hazard statement Code(s) for the classification of wastes as hazardous by HP 5:

HSCHazard Class and CategoryH statementConcentration limit
H370 STOT SE1 Causes damage to organs [or state all organs affected, if known] [state route of exposure if it is conclusively proven that no other routes of exposure cause the hazard] 1%
H371 STOT SE2 May cause damage to organs [or state all organs affected, if known] [state route of exposure if it is conclusively proven that no other routes of exposure cause the hazard] 10%
H335STOT SE3May cause respiratory irritation20%
H372 STOT RE1 Causes damage to organs [or state all organs affected, if known] through prolonged or repeated exposure [state route of exposure if it is conclusively proven that no other routes of exposure cause the hazard] 1%
H373 STOT RE2 May cause damage to organs [or state all organs affected, if known] through prolonged or repeated exposure [state route of exposure if it is conclusively proven that no other routes of exposure cause the hazard] 10%
H304 Asp. Tox. 1 May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways 10%

Criteria

When a waste contains one or more substances classified by one or more of the hazard class and category codes and hazard statement codes shown in Table HP 5, and one or more of the concentration limits in Table HP 5 are exceeded or equalled, the waste shall be classified as hazardous according to HP 5. When substances classified as STOT are present in a waste, an individual substance has to be present at or above the concentration limit for the waste to be classified as hazardous by HP 5.

When a waste contains one or more substances that have been classified as Asp. Tox. 1 and the sum of those substances exceeds or equals the concentration limit, the waste shall be classified as hazardous by HP 5 only where the overall kinematic viscosity (at 40°C) does not exceed 20.5mm2/s2 (paragraph 3.10.3.3.1.1, page 128, CLP).

Note that Asp. Tox 1 H304 is only relevant for liquids.

HP 6. Acute toxicity

waste which can cause acute toxic effects following oral or dermal administration, or inhalation exposure

Table HP 6. Hazard Class and Category Code(s) and Hazard statement Code(s) for the classification of wastes as hazardous by HP 6:

0.25%
HSCHazard Class and CategoryH statementConcentration limit
H300Acute toxicity 1 (oral)Fatal if swallowed0.1%
Acute toxicity 2 (oral)Fatal if swallowed
H301Acute toxicity 3 (oral)Toxic if swallowed5%
H302Acute toxicity 4 (oral)Harmful if swallowed25%
H310Acute toxicity 1 (dermal)Fatal in contact with skin0.25%
Acute toxicity 2 (dermal)Fatal in contact with skin2.5%
H311Acute toxicity 3 (dermal)Toxic in contact with skin15%
H312Acute toxicity 4 (dermal)Harmful in contact with skin55%
H330Acute toxicity 1 (inhalation)Fatal if inhaled0.1%
Acute toxicity 2 (inhalation)Fatal if inhaled0.5%
H331Acute toxicity 3 (inhalation)Toxic if inhaled3.5%
H332Acute toxicity 4 (inhalation)Harmful if inhaled22.5%

Criteria

If the sum of the concentrations of all substances contained in a waste, classified with the acute toxic hazard class and category codes and hazard statement codes given in Table HP 6, exceeds or equals the thresholds given in Table HP 6, then the waste shall be classified as hazardous according to HP 6. When more than one substance classified as acute toxic is present in a waste, the sum of the concentrations is required only for substances within the same hazard category.

Inhalation toxicity includes inhalation of gases, vapours and dust/mist as stated in the CLP. Since the lowest concentration limits among gases, vapours and dust/mist are for gases, they are mentioned as limiting/discriminating concentrations for H330, H331 and H332 and Table 6. The limiting concentrations for vapours and dust/mist are not mentioned in Table HP 6 but can be found Table 3.1.2 of the CLP.

The following cut-off values shall apply for consideration in an assessment:

For Acute Tox. Categories 1, 2 or 3 (H300, H310, H330, H301, H311, H331): 0.1%;

For Acute Tox. Category 4 (H302, H 312, H332): 1 %.

HP 7. Carcinogenic

waste which induces cancer or increases its incidence

Table HP 7. Hazard Class and Category Code(s) and Hazard statement Code(s) for the classification of wastes as hazardous by HP 7:

HSCHazard Class and CategoryH statementConcentration limit
H350Carcinogenic 1A; known to have carcinogenic potential for humansMay cause cancer [state route of exposure if it is conclusively proven that no other routes of exposure cause the hazard]0.1%
Carcinogenic 1B; presumed to have carcinogenic potential for humans0.1%
H351Carcinogenic 2; Suspected human carcinogensSuspected of causing cancer [state route of exposure if it is conclusively proven that no other routes of exposure cause the hazard]1.0%

Criteria

When a waste contains a substance classified by one of the following hazard class and category codes and hazard statement codes and exceeds or equals one of the concentration limits, shown in Table HP 7, the waste shall be classified as hazardous by HP 7. When more than one substance classified as carcinogenic is present in a waste, an individual substance has to be present at or above the concentration limit.

HP 8. Corrosive

waste which on application can cause skin corrosion

Criteria

When a waste contains one or more substances classified as Skin corr. 1A, 1B or 1C (H314) and the sum of their concentrations exceeds or equals 5%, the waste shall be classified as hazardous by HP 8:

The cut-off value for consideration in an assessment for Skin corrosion 1A, 1B and 1C (H314) is 1.0 %.

HP 10. Toxic for reproduction

waste which has adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring

Table HP 10. Hazard Class and Category Code(s) and Hazard statement Code(s) for the classification of wastes as hazardous by HP 10:

HSCHazard Class and CategoryH statementConcentration limit
H360Reproductive 1A; known human reproductive toxicantMay damage fertility or the unborn child [state specific effect if known] [state route of exposure if it is conclusively proven that no other routes of exposure cause the hazard]0.3%
Reproductive 1B; presumed human reproductive toxicant0.3%
H361Reproductive 2; suspected human reproductive toxicantSuspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child [state specific effect if known] [state route of exposure if it is conclusively proven that no other routes of exposure cause the hazard]3%

Criteria

When a waste contains a substance classified by one of the following hazard class and category codes and hazard statement codes, and exceeds or equals one of the concentration limits shown in Table HP 10, then the waste shall be classified hazardous according to HP 10. When more than one substance classified as toxic for reproduction is present in a waste, an individual substance has to be present above the concentration limit for the waste to be classified as hazardous by HP 10.

HP 11. Mutagenic

waste which may cause a mutation, that is a permanent change in the amount or structure of the genetic material in a cell

Table HP 11. Hazard Class and Category Code(s) and Hazard statement Code(s) for the classification of wastes as hazardous by HP 11:

HSCHazard Class and CategoryH statementConcentration limit
H340Mutagenic 1A ; known to induce mutations in the germs cells of humansMay cause genetic defects [state route of exposure if it is conclusively proven that no other routes of exposure cause the hazard]0.1%
Mutagenic 1B; regarded as if they induce mutations0.1%
H341Mutagenic 2; substances which cause concernSuspected of causing genetic defects [state route of exposure if it is conclusively proven that no other routes of exposure cause the hazard]1.0%

Criteria

When a waste contains a substance that is classified by one of the following hazard class and category codes and hazard statement codes, and exceeds or equals one of the concentration limits shown in Table HP 11, then the waste shall be classified as hazardous accordingly to HP 11. When more than one substance classified as mutagenic is present in a waste, an individual substance has to be present at or above the concentration limit for the waste to be classified as hazardous by HP 11.

HP 13. Sensitizing

waste which contains one or more substances that are known to cause sensitizing effects to the skin or the respiratory organs

Criteria

When a waste contains a substance classified as sensitizing and is assigned to one of the hazard statement codes H317 or H334, and one individual substance equals or exceeds the concentration limit of 10%, the waste shall be classified as hazardous by HP 13

HP 14. Eco-toxic

waste which presents or may present immediate or delayed risks for one or more sectors of the environment

Table HP 14. Hazard Class and Category Code(s) and Hazard statement Code(s) for the classification of wastes as hazardous by HP 14:

HSCHazard category and LC50 values
H400Aquatic acute 1; Very toxic to aquatic life, LC50 < 1mg/l
H410Aquatic chronic 1; Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects, LC50 < 1mg/l
H411Aquatic chronic 2; Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects, LC50: 1mg/l to 10 mg/l
H412Aquatic chronic 3; Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects, LC50: 10mg/l to 100 mg/l
H413Aquatic chronic 4; May cause long lasting harmful effects to aquatic life
H420Hazardous to the ozone layer

LC50 (lethal concentration) is a standard measure of the toxicity of the surrounding medium toxicity and is defined as a concentration at which half of the sample population (50%) die from exposure via possible exposure ways. LC50 is often expressed measurement in micrograms or milligrams of material per litre of water. The lower the LC50 value, the more toxic the material.

Currently, according to a new proposal from the Commission (see Legislation section), a new method is considered for HP 14 assessment. This methods is described in below:

Criteria

Waste which contains a substance classified as ozone depleting assigned the hazard statement code H420 in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council* and the concentration of such a substance equals or exceeds the concentration limit of 0.1%.

[ c(H420) ≥ 0.1% ]

• Waste which contains one or more substances classified as aquatic acute assigned the hazard statement code H400 in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 and the sum of the concentrations of those substances equals or exceeds the concentration limit of 25%. A cut-off value of 0.1% shall apply to such substances.

[ ∑c (H400) ≥ 25 % ]

• Waste which contains one or more substances classified as aquatic chronic 1, 2 or 3 assigned to the hazard statement code(s) H410, H411 or H412 in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008, and the sum of the concentrations of all substances classified as aquatic chronic 1 (H410) multiplied by 100 added to the sum of the concentrations of all substances classified as aquatic chronic 2 (H411) multiplied by 10 added to the sum of the concentrations of all substances classified as aquatic chronic 3 (H412) equals or exceeds the concentration limit of 25%. A cut-off value of 0.1% applies to substances classified as H410 and a cut-off value of 1% applies to substances classified as H411 or H412.

[ 100 x ∑c(H410) + 10 x ∑c(H411) + ∑c(H412) ≥ 25% ]

• Waste which contains one or more substances classified as aquatic chronic 1, 2, 3 or 4 assigned the hazard statement code(s) H410, H411, H412 or 413 in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008, and the sum of the concentrations of all substances classified as aquatic chronic equals or exceeds the concentration limit of 25%. A cut-off value of 0.1% applies to substances classified as H410 and a cut-off value of 1% applies to substances classified as H411, H412 or H413.

[ ∑ c H410 + ∑ c H411 + ∑ c H412 + ∑ c H413 ≥ 25 % ]

where: ∑ = sum and c = concentrations of the substances.

Hazard properties that are not assessed in ClassifyMyWaste

The assessment of the hazard properties that are mentioned in this paragraph is not included in ClassifyMyWaste. However the knowledge whether any of HP 1, HP 2, HP 3, HP 9, HP 12 and HP 15 can be displayed by material is necessary in order to make a final classification as hazardous or non-hazardous, since in order to be classified as non-hazardous waste, none of the 15 hazard properties shall be displayed.

ECN can assist in the assessment of hazard properties HP 1, HP 2, HP 3, HP 9, HP 12 and HP 15 or provide the advice on their relevance for certain types of materials.

Below one can find the definitions and relevant hazard statement codes that according to Commission Regulation (EU) No 1357/2014 have to be checked when evaluating HP 1, HP 2, HP 3, HP 9, HP 12 and HP 15. References to the test methods are also mentioned.

HP 1. Explosive

waste which is capable by chemical reaction of producing gas at such a temperature and pressure and at such a speed as to cause damage to the surroundings. Pyrotechnic waste, explosive organic peroxide waste and explosive self-reactive waste is included. When a waste contains one or more substances classified by one of the hazard class and category codes and hazard statement codes shown in Table HP 1, the waste shall be assessed for HP 1, where appropriate and proportionate, according to test methods. If the presence of a substance, a mixture or an article indicates that the waste is explosive, it shall be classified as hazardous by HP 1.

Table HP 1. Hazard Class and Category Code(s) and Hazard statement Code(s) for waste constituents for the classification of wastes as hazardous by HP 1:

HSCHazard Class and CategoryH statement
H200Unstable explosive
H201Expl. 1.1Explosive; mass explosion hazard
H202Expl. 1.2Explosive; severe projection hazard
H203Expl. 1.3Explosive; fire, blast or projection hazard
H204Expl. 1.4Fire or projection hazard
H240Heating may cause an explosionSelf-reacting, type A
Organic peroxides, type A
H241Heating may cause a fire explosionSelf-reacting, type B
Organic peroxides, type B

For detailed instructions on the assessment see pages 97-99 of Bipro report 2015: study to develop a guidance document of the definition and classification of hazardous waste

For test methods: (EC) No 440/2008 - Test Methods Regulation

HP 2. Oxidising

waste which may, generally by providing oxygen, cause or contribute to the combustion of other materials. When a waste contains one or more substances classified by one of the hazard class and category codes and hazard statement codes shown in Table HP 2, the waste shall be assessed for HP 2, where appropriate and proportionate, according to test methods. If the presence of a substance indicates that the waste is oxidising, it shall be classified as hazardous by HP 2.

Table HP 2. Hazard Class and Category Code(s) and Hazard statement Code(s) for the classification of wastes as hazardous by HP 2:

HSCHazard Class and CategoryH statement
H270Oxidizing gas 1May cause or intensify fire; oxidizer
H271Oxidizing liquid 1May cause fire or explosion; strong oxidizer
Oxidizing solid 1
H272Oxidizing liquid 2May intensify fire; oxidizer
Oxidizing liquid 3
Oxidizing solid 2
Oxidizing solid 3

For detailed instructions on the assessment see pages 100-102 of Bipro report 2015: study to develop a guidance document of the definition and classification of hazardous waste

For test methods: (EC) No 440/2008 - Test Methods Regulation

HP 3. Flammable

  • flammable liquid waste: liquid waste having a flash point below 60 °C or waste gas oil, diesel and light heating oils having a flash point > 55 °C and = 75 °C;
  • flammable pyrophoric liquid and solid waste: solid or liquid waste which, even in small quantities, is liable to ignite within five minutes after coming into contact with air;
  • flammable solid waste: solid waste which is readily combustible or may cause or contribute to fire through friction;
  • flammable gaseous waste: gaseous waste which is flammable in air at 20 °C and a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa;
  • water reactive waste:waste which, in contact with water, emits flammable gases in dangerous quantities;
  • other flammable waste:flammable aerosols, flammable self-heating waste, flammable organic peroxides and flammable self-reactive waste.

When a waste contains one or more substances classified by one of the following hazard class and category codes and hazard statement codes shown in Table 3, the waste shall be assessed, where appropriate and proportionate, according to test methods. If the presence of a substance indicates that the waste is flammable, it shall be classified as hazardous by HP 3.

Table HP 3. Hazard Class and Category Code(s) and Hazard statement Code(s) for waste constituents for the classification of wastes as hazardous by HP 3:

HSCHazard Class and CategoryH statement
H220Flammable gas 1Extremely flammable gas
H221Flammable gas 2Flammable gas
H222Flammable aerosol 1Extremely flammable aerosol
H223Flammable aerosol 2Flammable aerosol
H224Flammable liquid 1Extremely flammable liquid and vapor
H225Flammable liquid 2Highly flammable liquid and vapor
H226Flammable liquid 3Flammable liquid and vapor
H228Flam. solid 1, Flam. Solid 2Flammable solid
H242Self-react. subst. and mix., type C, DHeating may cause a fire
Self-react. subst. and mix., type E, F
Organic peroxides, type C, D
Organic peroxides, type E, F
H250Pyrophoric liq. 1 and pyrophoric solid 1Catches fire spontaneously if exp. to air
H251Self-heating subst. and mixtures, type 1Self-heating; may catch fire
H252Self-heating subst. and mixtures, type 2Self-heating in large quantities; may catch fire
H260Water-reactive subst. and mixt., type 1In contact with water releases flammable gases which may ignite spontaneously
H261Water-reactive subst. and mixt., type 2 and 3In contact with water releases flammable gases

For detailed instructions on the assessment see pages 103-108 of Bipro report 2015: study to develop a guidance document of the definition and classification of hazardous waste

For test methods: (EC) No 440/2008 - Test Methods Regulation

HP 9. Infectious

waste containing viable micro-organisms or their toxins which are known or reliably believed to cause disease in man or other living organisms. The attribution of HP 9 shall be assessed by the rules laid down in reference documents or legislation in the Member States.

For detailed instructions on the assessment see pages 125-128 of Bipro report 2015: study to develop a guidance document of the definition and classification of hazardous waste

There are no test methods given in the Test Methods Regulation (EC) No 440/2008 -

HP 12. Release of an acute toxic gas

waste which releases acute toxic gases (Acute Tox. 1, 2 or 3) in contact with water or an acid. When a waste contains a substance assigned to one of the following supplemental hazards EUH029, EUH031 and EUH032, it shall be classified as hazardous by HP 12 according to test methods or guidelines.

Table HP 12. Hazard Class and Category Code(s) and Hazard statement Code(s) for waste constituents for the classification of wastes as hazardous by HP 12:

HSCHazard statement
EUH029Contact with water liberates toxic gas
EUH031Contact with acid liberates toxic gas
EUH032Contact with acid liberates very toxic gas

For detailed instructions on the assessment see pages 133-137 of Bipro report 2015: study to develop a guidance document of the definition and classification of hazardous waste

There are no direct test methods for HP 12.
Where a test is necessary, the test method for emission of flammable gas provided in section 2.12 of Guidance on the application of the CLP criteria should be used. Where the waste contains EUH031 or EUH032 substances a 1 M hydrochloric acid solution can be used to replace the water in the test.

HP 15. Waste capable of exhibiting a hazardous property listed above not directly displayed by the original waste

When a waste contains one or more substances assigned to one of the hazard statements or supplemental hazards shown in Table HP 15, the waste shall be classified as hazardous by HP 15, unless the waste is in such a form that it will not under any circumstance exhibit explosive or potentially explosive properties.

Table HP 15. Hazard statements and supplemental hazards for waste constituents for the classification of wastes as hazardous by HP 15

HSCHazard statement
EUH001Explosive when dry
EUH019May form explosive peroxides
EUH044Risk of explosion if heated under confinement
H205May mass explode in fire

In addition, Member States may characterise a waste as hazardous by HP 15 based on other applicable criteria, such as an assessment of the leachate.

For detailed instructions on the assessment see pages 141-142 of Bipro report 2015: study to develop a guidance document of the definition and classification of hazardous waste

Wastes containing substances listed in Table HP15 should be assessed or tested for in accordance with Guidance on the application of the CLP criteria . Section 2.1 provides guidance on the classification of mixtures for EUH001, EUH044 and H205. A waste that would be labelled with a hazard statement or supplementary hazard code as a result assessment for EUH001, EUH019, EUH044 or H205 possesses the hazardous property HP 15.